A new species, , and three new subspecies, subsp. subsp. , and subsp. , which were isolated from supragingival and subgingival samples from patients with periodontitis and from patients with experimental gingivitis, are described. These organisms are treponemes that ferment carbohydrates and require rumen fluid or shortchain volatile fatty acids for growth. Fermentable carbohydrates are required as an energy source. The major products of fermentation are acetic, lactic, and succinic acids. Trace amounts of formic acid are also produced. The level of deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid homology within each subspecies is greater than 80%, whereas the level of homology between subspecies is about 60%. The average guanineplus-cytosine content of the deoxyribonucleic acid is 51 ± 1 mol%. The type strain of is strain ATCC 35536 (= VPI DR56BRIII6); the type strain of subsp. is strain ATCC 35534 (= VPI D2B8); and the type strain subsp. is strain ATCC 35535 (= VPI D46CPE1).


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