The type strains of subsp. and subsp. were shown to have only 20% deoxyribonucleic acid homology. These two organisms could be differentiated by 15 physiological characteristics, including salt requirements, production of β-galactosidase, digestion of urea and esculin, fermentation of carbohydrates, and utilization of carbohydrates as sole carbon sources. Therefore, subsp. is elevated to species rank as The type strain of , strain ATCC 23301, and ATCC 23304 (ex “” type strain) showed only 50% deoxyribonucleic acid homology, but these strains could not be differentiated phenotypically and are still considered members of the same species, . Deoxyribonucleic acid homology data and phenotypic properties confirmed that , and .


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