A taxonomic study of Gardner and Dukes was undertaken to determine relationships between this organism and members of other genera. The methods utilized included Adansonian analysis, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-DNA hybridizations, electron microscopy, and biochemical analysis of cell envelopes. By numerical analysis, all 78 clinical isolates and reference strains examined were related to each other at a similarity level exceeding 95%. No subspecies or biovars were observed. DNA-DNA hybridizations showed no genetic relationship between and members of the genera , and . Also, no relationship was observed between and CDC DF-1. In the absence of existing genera with genetic features compatible with , we propose the new genus for inclusion of organisms presently designated as either or is defined to include catalase- and oxidase-negative, gram-negative to gram-variable bacteria with laminated cell walls which produce acetic acid as the major end product of fermentation. The type species of is (Gardner and Dukes) comb. nov. Due to the unusual cell wall of this organism, this new genus is not presently assignable to a family.


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