1887

Abstract

A gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, originally thought by Auger (1974) to be the agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines, is commonly associated with , one of the leafhopper vectors of the disease. The bacterium has the following colonial and cellular characteristics: smooth, glistening white, or chalky colonies, 0.4 to 0.5 mm in diameter with entire margins; gram positive becoming gram variable after 5 days in culture; nonmotile and nonsporeforming; grows between 15 and 37°C with an optimum between 28 and 30°C and no growth at 9 or 45°C; optimum growth occurs at pH 6.5, with growth observed at pH 4.5 and pH 9.0. The bacterium does not survive after 5 to 7 days of growth and must be maintained on fresh medium. It is rod-shaped (0.6 by 1.5 to 2.0 μm), growing in short chains of three to four cells each, and possesses mesosomes and a cell wall of uniform thickness (28 to 35 nm) that consists of an electrondense outer layer and an inner layer resembling unit-membrane structure. The organism is a facultative anaerobe which reacts negatively in tests for cytochrome oxidase, catalase, “gelatinase,” urease, tryptophanase, and nitrate and disulfide reductase activities. No dextran or levan is produced from sucrose. It produces L-(+)-lactic acid but not D-(—)-lactic acid from glucose and sucrose fermentation, acetylmethylcarbinol, or arginine deaminase. Glucose, sucrose, galactose, maltose, fructose, trehalose, salicin, inulin, and cellobiose, but not gluconate, lactose, mannose, mannitol, sorbitol, melibiose, or raffinose, were utilized as carbon sources. Its chromosome has an average guanine-plus-cytosine content of 32.75 mol%. Based on these features, the bacterium appears to be a hitherto unrecognized species of the genus , for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HC-1 (= ATCC 29071).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-27-4-362
1977-10-01
2022-01-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ijsem/27/4/ijs-27-4-362.html?itemId=/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-27-4-362&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Auger J. G., Shalla T. A., Kado C. I. 1974; Pierce’s disease of grapevines: evidence for a bacterial etiology. Science 181:1375–1377
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Dawes E. A., McGill D. J., Midgley M. 1971 Analysis of fermentation products. 53–215 Norris J. R., Ribbons D. W.ed Methods in microbiology 6A Academic Press, Inc.; London:
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Garvie E. I. 1960; The genus Leuconostoc and its nomenclature. J. Dairy Res. 27:282–292
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Garvie E. I. 1967; Leuconostoc venos sp. nov. J. Gen. Microbiol. 48:431–438
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Garvie E. I. 1975 Some properties of gas forming lactic acid bacteria and their significance in classification. 339–349 Carr J. C., Cutting C. V., Whiting G. C.ed Lactic acid bacteria in beverage and food Academic Press, Inc.; London:
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gasser F. 1970; Electrophoretic characterization of the lactic dehydrogenases in the genus Lactobacillus. J. Gen. Microbiol. 62:233–239
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gasser F., Mandel M. 1968; Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of the genus Lactobacillus. J. Bacteriol. 96:580–588
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Goheen A. C., Nyland G., Lowe S. K. 1973; Association of a rickettsia-like organism with Pierce’s disease of grapevines and alfalfa dwarf and heat therapy of the disease in grapevines. Phytopathology 363:341–345
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Holding A. J., Collee J. G. 1971 Routine biochemical tests. 1–32 Norris J. R., Ribbons D. W.ed Methods in microbiology 6A Academic Press, Inc.; London:
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hopkins D. L., Mollenhauer H. H. 1973; Rickettsia-like bacterium associated with Pierce’s disease of grapes. Science 179:298–300
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ingram M. 1975 The lactic acid bacteria. A broad review. 1–13 Carr J. C., Cutting C. V., Whiting G. C.ed Lactic acid bacteria in beverage and food Academic Press, Inc.; London:
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kado C. L, Heskett M. G. 1970; Selective media for isolation of Agrobacterium, Corynebacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas. Phytopathology 60:969–976
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Latorre B. A., Kado C. I., Goheen A. C., Kunkee R. E. 1975 Characterization of the bacterium associated with Pierce’s disease. 67 Miller R. L.ed Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society 2 The American Phytopathological Society; St. Paul:
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Mandel M., Schildkraut C. L., Marmur J. 1968 Use of CsCl density gradient analysis for determining the guanine plus cytosine content of DNA. 184–185 Grossman L., Moldave K.ed Methods in enzymology 2B Academic Press, Inc.; New York:
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Marmur J. 1961; A procedure for the isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from microorganisms. J. Mol. Biol. 3:208–318
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Marmur J., Doty P. 1962; Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from its thermal denaturation temperature. J. Mol. Biol. 5:109–118
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Miller A. III, Sandine W. E., Elliker P. R. 1970; Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of lactobacilli determined by thermal denaturation. J. Bacteriol. 102:278–280
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Niven C. F. Jr., Smiley K. L., Sherman J. M. 1942; The hydrolysis of arginine by streptococci. J. Bacteriol. 43:651–660
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Orla-Jensen S. 1919 The lactic acid bacteria. A. F. Host and Sons; Copenhagen:
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Purcell A. H., Latorre-Guzman B. A., Kado C. I., Goheen A. C., Shalla T. A. 1977; Reinvestigation of the role of a lactobacillus associated with leafhopper vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapevines. Phytopathology 67:298–301
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Rogosa M. 1974 Genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck. 576–593 Buchanan R. E., Gibbons N. E.ed Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th. The Williams and Wilkins Co.; Baltimore:
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Rogosa M., Hansen P. A. 1971; Nomenclatural considerations of certain species of Lactobacillus Beijerincki. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 21:177–186
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rogosa M., Mitchell J. A., Wiseman R. F. 1951; A selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of oral and fecal lactobacilli. J. Bacteriol. 62:132–133
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Saito H., Miura K.-I. 1963; Preparation of transforming deoxyribonucleic acid by phenol treatment. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 72:619–629
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Salton M. R. J. 1964 The bacterial cell wall. Elsevier Publishing Co.; Amsterdam:
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Somogyi M. 1930; A method for the preparation of blood filtrates for the determination of sugar. J. Biol. Chern. 86:655–663
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Spurr A. R. 1969; A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26:31–43
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Whittenbury R. 1966; A study of the genus Leuconostoc. Arch. MikrobioL 53:317–327
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-27-4-362
Loading
/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/00207713-27-4-362
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error