The relevance of as a human pathogen is linked with its poor susceptibility to azoles as well as its extreme genomic plasticity that allows the rapid acquisition of resistance. Extensive characterization of azole-resistant strains unveiled the central role of the transcriptional regulator CgPdr1 in the resistance phenotype, with many strains encoding hyperactive (or gain-of-function; GOF) CgPdr1 alleles. Large scale profiling of a collection of clinical isolates recovered in hospitals of the Lisbon area, in Portugal, led to the identification of 11 strains exhibiting resistance to fluconazole and voriconazole, while 2 were only resistant to fluconazole. Among these strains, 10 were found to encode alleles of the CgPDR1 gene harbouring multiple non-synonymous SNPs that were not found in the alleles encoded by susceptible strains, including K274Q, I392M and I803T not previously described as GOF mutations. The isolates encoding these alleles were found to over-express several CgPdr1 target genes including the azole efflux pump CgCDR1 sustaining the idea that these represent new gain-of-function CgPdr1 alleles. Only one of the identified azole-resistant strains was found to encode a CgPDR1 allele fully identical to the one encoded by susceptible strains. To better understand the resistance phenotype of this strain, its transcriptome was compared with the one of a susceptible strain and of strains encoding CgPdr1 GOF alleles. The results of this comparative transcriptomic analysis will be discussed shedding light into the different azole-resistance mechanisms evolved by , including those independent of CgPdr1 GOF strains.

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