is a commensal yeast of the human gut, which is tolerated by the immune system, but has the potential to become an opportunistic pathogen. One way in which achieves this duality is through concealing, or exposing cell wall pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in response to host derived environment cues (pH, hypoxia, lactate). This cell wall remodelling allows to evade or hyperactivate the host’s innate immune responses leading to disease. Previously, we identified that adaptation of C. albicans to acidic environments, conditions encountered during colonisation of the female reproductive tract, induce significant cell wall remodelling resulting in the exposure of two key fungal PAMPs (glucan and chitin). Here we report that this pH-dependent cell wall remodelling is time dependent with the initial change in pH driving cell wall unmasking, which is then remasked at later time points. Remasking ofglucan was mediated via the cell density dependent fungal quorum sensing molecule farnesol, while chitin remasking was mediated via a small, heat-stable, non-proteinaceous secreted molecule(s). Transcript profiling identified a core set of 42 genes significantly regulated by pH over time, and identified the transcription factor Efg1 as a regulator of chitin exposure through regulation of CHT2. This dynamic cell wall remodelling influenced innate immune recognition of , suggesting that during infection can manipulate the host innate immune responses.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

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