, a decade old species, has been identified globally as a significant nosocomial multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogen responsible for causing invasive outbreaks. Biofilms and over expression of efflux pumps such as Major Facilitator Superfamily and ATP Binding Cassette are known to cause multidrug resistance in species, including . Therefore, targeting these factors may prove an effective approach to combat MDR in .


In this study, 25 clinical isolates of from different hospitals of South Africa were used. Antifungal susceptibility profile of all the isolates against commonly used drugs was determined following CLSI recommended guidelines. Rhodamine-6-G extracellular efflux and intracellular accumulation assays were used to study active drug efflux mechanism. We further studied the role of farnesol in modulating development of biofilms and drug efflux in . Down-regulation of biofilm- and efflux pump- associated genes by farnesol was also investigated. CLSM analysis for examining biofilm architecture among treated and untreated isolates.


Most of the isolates (twenty-two) were found resistant to FLZ whereas five were resistant to AmB. All the isolates were found capable of biofilm formation and ornamented with active drug efflux mechanism. The MIC for planktonic cells ranged from 62.5-125 mM and for sessile cells was 125 mM (0 h and 4 h biofilm) and 500 mM (12 h and 24 h biofilm), CLSM studies also confirmed these findings. Farnesol also blocked efflux pumps and down-regulated biofilm- and efflux pump- associated genes.


Modulation of biofilm- and efflux pump- associated genes by farnesol represent a promising approach in combating infection.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

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