There has been a global drive for increased antimicrobial stewardship. In the UK, this drive has focused on decreased usage of antimicrobials, specifically HP-CIAs. It is well known that antimicrobials are selection drivers for antimicrobial resistance. How a given dose will impact the prevalence of resistance in a microbiome, and therefore the associated risk of a resistant infection is less understood. Questions also remain around the impact of antimicrobial therapy on resistance across a herd, if selection occurs within an animal receiving treatment, what is the potential risk of this resistance spreading throughout other animals?

ISOLATION Tryptone Bile X-Glucuronide (TBX) media was used for selective growth of non – toxigenic from dairy cow faeces. SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING EUCAST Disk Diffusion testing guidelines were followed to determine susceptibility of faecal isolates to a panel of 8 antimicrobials from 5 different classes. ISOLATE FINGERPRINTING To determine clonality of faecal isolates ERIC-PCR was used as an efficient method to provide a genomic fingerprint.

This work is ongoing. Current work suggests that low frequency Amoxicillin treatment has no significant selection for resistance. However, there appears to be some instances of co-selection for Streptomycin, Tetracycline and Sulphonamide resistance, and several multi drug resistance isolates have been identified. More work needs to be done to confirm the impact of low frequency Amoxicillin treatment on resistance and identify the mechanism behind suspected co-selection and multi drug resistance.

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