There is currently no standard established model to test the efficacy of intermittent catheters to prevent or control introduction/movement of bacteria into the urethra during device insertion. This study aimed to address this issue by developing a reproducible agar based urethral model.

A novel model and testing method was developed to quantify the displacement of bacterial growth after intermittent catheter insertion.The urethral model consists primarily of a preformed channel within a specifically formulated agar based matrix. The urethra model was inoculated at one side of the channel to act as the urethral meatus, a catheter was then inserted. After incubation the bacteria within the urethra channel was quantified.

Once optimised, the model produced reliable and reproducible results with both and (P≥0.265). The model was used to test three different intermittent catheter types. When compared to the growth control there was a significant difference in bacterial distribution when inserting an uncoated (P≤0.001) or hydrophilic coated (P≤0.009) catheter; there was no significant difference when a prototype catheter was inserted with either bacterial species used (P≥0.423).

These findings support the hypothesis that a single catheter insertion can initiate a catheter-associated urinary tract infection. The urethra model and associated methodology provide a new research tool for the development and validation of emerging technologies in urological healthcare.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error