Despite ∼60 % of human pathogens being of zoonotic origin, the diversity of viruses in non-human hosts remains understudied. To investigate the viral diversity present in Vietnam, the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) collected 2100 rectal swabs and faecal samples from several non-human hosts (including pigs, rats and bats) as well enteric hospital patients and individuals with high animal contact. Samples underwent metagenomic sequencing (Illumina HiSeq), assembly (MetaSPAdes) and screening for viral sequences (Blastn and DIAMOND Blastp). The majority (87.5%) of viral sequences identified in humans shared high nucleotide identity (>95 %) to previously described viral species, with the exception of sequences assigned to Anelloviridae and Picobirnaviridae. Approximately half (46.5%) of viral sequences identified in non-human hosts shared between 60 to 80% nucleotide identity to its closest match in GenBank. For all hosts other from rats the family with the highest frequency of low identity hits was Picobirnaviridae. Sources of diversity at a viral family level were mostly host specific, with pigs having diverse astrovirus and smacovirus sequences, rats for rotavirus and adenovirus and bats for coronavirus and parvovirus. These results highlight the historic bias of sequencing viruses from human hosts and the need to shift focus to non-human hosts. Pig, bats and rats in Vietnam harbor a large diversity of potentially novel viruses that may be threats to animal and human health.

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