Lung tumors and infections remain the most common leading cause of mortality worldwide. Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been considered the king of medicinal mushrooms which constitutes an inexhaustible source of active compounds which can affect the survival of tumor cells. It has been used widely for centuries as a dietary supplement and tea. In this sense, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxic capacity of water extracts of I. obliquus (Chaga mushroom) against the human lung cancer A549 cell line after 72 h incubation. In addition, the extracts were screened for antifungal activity on Aspergillus fumigatus species, a life-threatening cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The cytotoxic and the antimicrobial effects were performed using the MTT assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, respectively. Owing to the noticeable effect on antiproliferation of hot-water extracts, especially those from I. obliquus, the extract could be of great potential to be used as an alternative cancer therapy. However, it was not proven to have antifungal effect against A. fumigatus fungi.

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