1887

Abstract

To help assess whether a potentially antimicrobial material, surface, or coating provides antimicrobial efficacy, a number of standardised test methods have been developed internationally. Ideally, these methods should generate data that supports the materials efficacy when deployed in the intended end-use application. These methods can be categorised based on their methodological approach such as suspension tests, agar plate/zone diffusion tests, surface inoculation tests, surface growth tests or surface adhesion tests. To support those interested in antimicrobial coating efficacy, this review brings together an exhaustive list of methods (for porous and non-porous materials), exploring the methodological and environmental parameters used to quantify antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral activity. This analysis demonstrates that antimicrobial efficacy methods that test either fungi or viruses are generally lacking, whilst methods that test bacteria, fungi and viruses are not designed to simulate end-use/lack realistic conditions. As such, a number of applications for antimicrobial activity across medical touch screens, medical textiles and gloves and transport seat textiles are explored as example applications, providing guidance on modifications to existing methods that may better simulate the intended end-use of antimicrobial materials.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Innovate UK (Award 10055606)
    • Principle Award Recipient: PeterAskew
  • Innovate UK (Award 10042534)
    • Principle Award Recipient: JamesRedfern
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article was made open access via a Publish and Read agreement between the Microbiology Society and the corresponding author’s institution.
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2024-07-05
2024-07-17
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