1887

Abstract

Livestock, particularly pigs, have increasingly been recognized as important reservoirs for zoonotic transmission of pathogenic bacteria, including staphylococci. Livestock production systems in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, are characterized by high misuse/abuse of antimicrobials and a close association between humans and these animals, which promotes the emergence and transmission of resistant and potentially virulent bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence and characteristics (species distribution, virulence and resistance profile) of staphylococci from smallholder backyard pig farms, slaughter slabs and pig handlers in Makurdi, Nigeria. A total of 330 nasal swabs originating from 300 pigs and 30 in-contact humans were collected and processed. One hundred and thirteen samples [34.2 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 29.1–39.6] comprising 103 (34.3 %; 95 % CI: 29.0–40.0) and 10 (33.3 %; 95 % CI: 17.3–52.8 %) samples from pigs and humans, respectively, were positive for staphylococci, yielding 120 isolates (pigs =110, humans =10). The 120 isolates were distributed into 15 species with (=25) followed by (=19) and (=14) occurring more frequently. All isolates were resistant to β-lactam (100 %) antibiotics. Resistance to some critical antimicrobials, including linezolid (22 %), vancomycin (19.2 %), gentamicin (7.5%) and the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin (75.8 %) and enrofloxacin (66.7 %), was also observed. Majority (99.2 %) of the isolates displayed a multidrug resistance phenotype with the AMP-C-CIP-E-ENR-FOX-OX-P-S-SXT-TE phenotype being predominant. Overall, 70 % of the isolates expressed the methicillin resistance phenotype, out of which 20 % (=17) were MRSA. Resistance to serum bactericidal activity and biofilm production were respectively observed in 45 (100 %) and 5 (11.3 %) of the coagulase-positive staphylococci. Our findings demonstrated the occurrence of a high diversity of staphylococci expressing multidrug resistance and potentially virulent phenotypes among healthy swine and pig handlers in small-scale backyard farms in North-Central Nigeria. These findings underscore the potential role of pig production settings in the emergence and dissemination of potentially virulent staphylococci and the importance of the development of antimicrobial resistance monitoring systems/implementation of control measures in developing countries. Proper hygienic practices and control of indiscriminate use and misuse of antibiotics are recommended.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License. The Microbiology Society waived the open access fees for this article.
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2021-12-09
2022-01-29
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