1887

Abstract

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis in children and is associated with a high cerebral complication rate. In this case report, we present a 9-year-old girl with GAS meningitis complicated with cerebritis. Clear guidelines about choice of treatment and indications of follow-up by imaging tests are lacking, making GAS meningitis unpredictable and difficult to treat. Eventually, we found 25 paediatric cases of GAS meningitis presented in the literature and reviewed their treatment choices, outcomes and follow-up by imaging tests. Penicillin and ceftriaxone are most preferred for the treatment of GAS meningitis and adding rifampicin to the antibiotic treatment could be of potential benefit. When considering the duration of antibiotic treatment and follow-up by imaging tests, no clear recommendations were found. We found that GAS meningitis is associated with higher mortality and cerebral complication rates compared to other, more common, bacterial causes of meningitis in children. This should alert the clinician to consider imaging tests routinely, even if the patient improves clinically. We advise clinicians to routinely evaluate for possible cerebral complications through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. When cerebral complications are found, antibiotic treatment should be prolonged and adding rifampicin to the antibiotic regime may be considered.

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2019-08-19
2019-09-18
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